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Gluconacetobacter spp. SEM. Gluconacetobacter is the genus with the most species, and deploying the greatest variety of physiological capabilities like organic acid production, nitrogen fixation, carbohydrate polymer synthesis, among others. The habitats for these species range from fruits and sugar and ethanol solutions, to commensalism with insects and symbiosis with vegetal species. Bacteria producing acetic acid by partial oxidation of ethanol were studied by Pasteur. The presence of acetic acid-forming bacteria, able to grow on glucose, forming a thick mat on top of unstirred cultures was later described by Hansen and Jorgensen. In 1992, two genera were recognized for acetic acid bacteria: Acetobacter and Gluconobacter. Yamada proposed the transferal of strains previously classified as Acetobacter along with several new species to a new genus named Gluconacetobacter. Enhanced SEM. Image width: 8 micrometers. Magnification: 12,500x if the image is printed 10 cm wide.
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