James Watson & Francis Crick described the chemical structure of DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid. A DNA molecule consists of 2 strands which are twisted together to form a double helix. Prior to replication the strands separate from each other. Each strand then acts as a template for the formation of a new DNA molecule. Sections of DNA are called genes which transfer hereditary characteristics from generation to generation. The offshoot of this discovery has led to a number of applications, for example, the Human Genome Project; Genetic Engineering; DNA Cloning, Stem Cell research; Gene Therapy; GM Research & Products; Proteomics; Forensics and DNA nanotechnology.